Fumiko Hayashi 林芙美子
Fumiko Hayashi (1903–1951) was born in Yamaguchi Prefecture, the illegitimate daughter of an itinerant peddler, and experienced abject poverty as a child. After finishing school she moved to Tokyo to write, but barely managed to support herself there and struggled in a series of unhappy relationships. This unconventional early life influenced her works, especially Horoki (tr. Vagabond's Diary, 1930), her first semi-autobiographical novel. After establishing her popularity with Horoki, she continued to write about the sufferings caused by war and poverty, and the misery of rootless women.